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1.C.92 The Pentraxin (Pentraxin) Family

The pentraxins are a family of highly conserved plasma proteins of metazoans known to function in immune defence. The canonical members, C-reactive protein and serum amyloid P component, have been identified in arthropods and humans. Mammalian pentraxins are known to bind lipid bilayers, and a pentraxin representative from the American horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus, binds and permeabilizes mammalian erythrocytes. Both activities are Ca2+-dependent. Utilizing model liposomes and planar lipid bilayers, all of the Limulus pentraxins permeabilize lipid bilayers (Harrington et al., 2008). Mechanistically, Limulus C-reactive protein forms transmembrane pores in asymmetric planar lipid bilayers that mimic the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria and exhibits a Ca2+-independent form of membrane binding that may be sufficient for pore formation.

The reaction catalzed by pentraxins is:

small molecules (in) small molecules (out)

References associated with 1.C.92 family:

Harrington, J.M., H.T. Chou, T. Gutsmann, C. Gelhaus, H. Stahlberg, M. Leippe, and P.B. Armstrong. (2008). Membrane pore formation by pentraxin proteins from Limulus, the American horseshoe crab. Biochem. J. 413: 305-313. 18370931
Lee, S.J., M. Wei, C. Zhang, S. Maxeiner, C. Pak, S. Calado Botelho, J. Trotter, F.H. Sterky, and T.C. S├╝dhof. (2017). Presynaptic Pentraxin Receptor Organizes Excitatory and Inhibitory Synapses. J. Neurosci. 37: 1062-1080. 27986928
Matthews, P.M., A. Pinggera, D. Kampjut, and I.H. Greger. (2021). Biology of AMPA receptor interacting proteins - From biogenesis to synaptic plasticity. Neuropharmacology 197: 108709. 34271020