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8.A.164.  The Integral Membrane Carbonic Anhydrase XI (CA9) Family 

Carbonic anhydrase IX (CA9), a pH-regulating transmembrane protein, is highly expressed in solid tumors, and particularly in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). The catalytic mechanisms of CA9 are well defined. Xu et al. 2020 confirmed that the mRNA expression of CA9 in ccRCC was significantly higher than that in para-carcinoma tissues. CA9 knockdown upregulated oxidative phosphorylation-associated proteins and increased mitochondrial biogenesis, resulting in the reversal of the Warburg phenotype and the inhibition of cell growth. Thus, CA9 knockdown upregulated mitochondrial arginase 2 (ARG2), leading to the accumulation of putrescine, which suppressed ccRCC proliferation. Surfaceomics analysis revealed that CA9 knockdown downregulated proteins associated with extracellular matrix (ECM)-receptor interaction and cell adhesion, resulting in decreased cell migration. CA9 silencing also downregulated amino acid transporters, leading to reduced cellular amino acids. Thus, CA9 promotes proliferation via metabolic reprogramming (Xu et al. 2020).

References associated with 8.A.164 family:

Xu, J., S. Zhu, L. Xu, X. Liu, W. Ding, Q. Wang, Y. Chen, and H. Deng. (2020). Silencing Promotes Mitochondrial Biogenesis, Increases Putrescine Toxicity and Decreases Cell Motility to Suppress ccRCC Progression. Int J Mol Sci 21:. 32824856