8.A.181. The TMEM242 Protein Complex Assembly Factor (TMEM242) Family
TMEM70 and TMEM242 help to assemble the rotor ring of human ATP synthase and interact with assembly factors for complex I (Carroll et al. 2021). Among the 29 component proteins of 18 kinds, ATP6 and ATP8 are mitochondrial gene products, and the rest are nuclear gene products that are imported into the organelle. The ATP synthase is assembled from them via intermediate modules representing the main structural elements of the enzyme. One such module is the c8-ring, which provides the membrane sector of the enzyme's rotor, and its assembly is influenced by another transmembrane (TMEM) protein, TMEM70. Carroll et al. 2021 have shown that subunit c interacts with TMEM70 and TMEM242. Deletion of TMEM242, similar to deletion of TMEM70, affects but does not completely eliminate the assembly of ATP synthase, and to a lesser degree, the assembly of respiratory enzyme complexes I, III, and IV. Deletion of TMEM70 and TMEM242 together prevents assembly of ATP synthase and the impact on complex I is enhanced. Removal of TMEM242, but not of TMEM70, also affects the introduction of subunits ATP6, ATP8, j, and k into the enzyme. TMEM70 and TMEM242 interact with the mitochondrial complex I assembly (the MCIA) complex that supports assembly of the membrane arm of complex I. The interactions of TMEM70 and TMEM242 with MCIA could be part of either the assembly of ATP synthase and complex I or the regulation of their levels (Carroll et al. 2021).