1.E.11 The φ11 Holin (φ11 Holin) Family
See 1.E for a generalized description of Holins.
The pneumococcal EJ-1 phage holin (EJh) is a hydrophobic peptide (85 aas) with 2 putative TMSs displaying lethal inner membrane disruptive activity. The synthetic N-terminal TMS flanked by its N-terminal positively charged residues folds into a transmembrane α-helix that increases the membrane permeability. Oligomeric channels of various sizes form depending on the peptide to lipid ratio (Haro et al., 2003). By atomic force microscopy, peptide-induced membrane holes can be seen.