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2.B.70.  The Zinc Oxide (ZnO) Nanoparticle (NP) (ZnO-NP) Drug Carrier Family 

Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) provide a promising platform for use in biomedical research, especially given their anticancer and antimicrobial activities. These activities are associated with the ability of ZnO NPs to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) and induce apoptosis. In addition, ZnO NPs have been successfully exploited as drug carriers for loading and transporting drugs to target sites, thereby reducing unwanted toxicity and off-target effects, and resulting in amplified synergistic effects. The synthesis and biomedical applications of ZnO NPs have been reviewed (Mishra et al. 2017).  The toxic effects of different types of zinc oxide nanoparticles on algae, plants, invertebrates, vertebrates and microorganisms have been reviewed (Hou et al. 2018). Pathways of cellular uptake, subcellular distribution and excretion of NPs have also been reviewed (Liu and Tang 2020). Moreover, electrochemical-based biosesors on different Zinc Oxide nanostructures has been discussed (Napi et al. 2019).  Metal (zinc, iron, titanium, copper, etc.) oxide nanoparticles are widely used in therapeutic applications as drugs, nanocarriers, and diagnostic tools, and macrophages can recognize and engulf nanoparticles (Dukhinova et al. 2019; Bathi et al. 2021). Plants and the rhizosphere are affected by ZnO NPs (Liu et al. 2022). ZnO NPs are promising nanofungicides for effective control of rice blast disease (Ghamari et al. 2022).

References associated with 2.B.70 family:

Bathi, J.R., F. Moazeni, V.K.K. Upadhyayula, I. Chowdhury, S. Palchoudhury, G.E. Potts, and V. Gadhamshetty. (2021). Behavior of engineered nanoparticles in aquatic environmental samples: Current status and challenges. Sci Total Environ 793: 148560. 34328971
Dukhinova, M.S., A.Y. Prilepskii, A.A. Shtil, and V.V. Vinogradov. (2019). Metal Oxide Nanoparticles in Therapeutic Regulation of Macrophage Functions. Nanomaterials (Basel) 9:. 31744137
Ghamari, R., A. Ahmadikhah, M. Tohidfar, and M.R. Bakhtiarizadeh. (2022). RNA-Seq Analysis of Transcriptome Reveals the High Potential of ZnO Nanoparticles as a Nanofungicide. Front Plant Sci 13: 896283. 35755666
Hou, J., Y. Wu, X. Li, B. Wei, S. Li, and X. Wang. (2018). Toxic effects of different types of zinc oxide nanoparticles on algae, plants, invertebrates, vertebrates and microorganisms. Chemosphere 193: 852-860. 29874759
Liu, L., H. Nian, and T. Lian. (2022). Plants and rhizospheric environment: Affected by zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs). A review. Plant Physiol. Biochem 185: 91-100. 35667318
Liu, N. and M. Tang. (2020). Toxic effects and involved molecular pathways of nanoparticles on cells and subcellular organelles. J Appl Toxicol 40: 16-36. 31294482
Mishra, P.K., H. Mishra, A. Ekielski, S. Talegaonkar, and B. Vaidya. (2017). Zinc oxide nanoparticles: a promising nanomaterial for biomedical applications. Drug Discov Today 22: 1825-1834. 28847758
Napi, M.L.M., S.M. Sultan, R. Ismail, K.W. How, and M.K. Ahmad. (2019). Electrochemical-Based Biosensors on Different Zinc Oxide Nanostructures: A Review. Materials (Basel) 12:. 31540160