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8.A.143.  The TMEM132 (TMEM132) Family 

TMEM132 genes can be mutated to cause non-syndromic hearing loss, panic disorder and cancer. The full domain architecture of human TMEM132 family proteins, solved using in-depth sequence and structural analysis reveal them to be five previously unappreciated cell adhesion molecules whose domain architecture has an early holozoan origin prior to the emergence of choanoflagellates and metazoa. The extra-cellular portions of TMEM132 proteins contain five conserved domains including three tandem immunoglobulin domains, and a cohesin domain homologue, the first such domain found in animals. Thus a cellular adhesion function for the TMEM132 family, connecting the extracellular medium with the intracellular actin cytoskeleton has been suggested (Sanchez-Pulido and Ponting 2018). These proteins are large (~ 1000 residues) and have two TMSs, one at the N-terminus, and one near the C-terminus. Hair cell alpha9alpha10 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor functional expression is regulated by ligand binding and deafness gene products (Gu et al. 2020; see next paragraph).

Auditory hair cells receive olivocochlear efferent innervation, which refines tonotopic mapping, improves sound discrimination, and mitigates acoustic trauma. The olivocochlear synapse involves α9α10nAChRs which assemble in hair cells only coincident with cholinergic innervation and do not express in recombinant mammalian cell lines. Genome-wide screening determined that assembly and surface expression of α9α10 require ligand binding. Ion channel function additionally demands an auxiliary subunit, which can be transmembrane inner ear (TMIE) or TMEM132e (Gu et al. 2020). Both of these single-pass transmembrane proteins are enriched in hair cells and underlie nonsyndromic human deafness. Inner hair cells from TMIE mutant mice show altered postsynaptic α9α10 function and retain α9α10-mediated transmission beyond the second postnatal week associated with abnormally persistent cholinergic innervation. Thus, the mechanism links cholinergic input with α9α10 assembly, identifies functions for human deafness genes TMIE/TMEM132e, and enables drug discovery for this elusive nAChR implicated in prevalent auditory disorders (Gu et al. 2020).

References associated with 8.A.143 family:

Gu, S., D. Knowland, J.A. Matta, M.L. O''Carroll, W.B. Davini, M. Dhara, H.J. Kweon, and D.S. Bredt. (2020). Hair cell α9α10 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor functional expression regulated by ligand binding and deafness gene products. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 117: 24534-24544. 32929005
Liu, H., J. Barnes, E. Pedrosa, N.S. Herman, F. Salas, P. Wang, D. Zheng, and H.M. Lachman. (2020). Transcriptome analysis of neural progenitor cells derived from Lowe syndrome induced pluripotent stem cells: identification of candidate genes for the neurodevelopmental and eye manifestations. J Neurodev Disord 12: 14. 32393163
Sanchez-Pulido, L. and C.P. Ponting. (2018). TMEM132: an ancient architecture of cohesin and immunoglobulin domains define a new family of neural adhesion molecules. Bioinformatics 34: 721-724. 29088312