TCDB is operated by the Saier Lab Bioinformatics Group
TCIDNameDomainKingdom/PhylumProtein(s)
8.B.32.1.1









α-Conotoxin MII of 68 aas and 1 TMS. A number of conopeptides have been developed as analgesics for the treatment of neuropathic pain (Alonso et al. 2003). The 3-d structure has been determined (2AJW_A) (Turner et al. 2009).

Eukaryota
Metazoa
α-Conotoxin MII of Conus magus (Magus cone) (Magician's cone snail)
8.B.32.1.2









α-Conαotoxin Qc alphaL-1 of 68 aas and 1 TMS.  Alpha-conotoxins act on postsynaptic membranes, binding to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) and thus inhibiting them. This toxin has 3 cysteine residues in the mature peptide.

Eukaryota
Metazoa
α-Conαotoxin Qc alphaL-1 of Conus quercinus (Oak cone)
8.B.32.1.3









α-Conotoxin Ac1.1 of 59 aas and 1 TMS. 

Eukaryota
Metazoa
α-Conotoxin Ac1.1 of Conus achatinus
8.B.32.1.4









α-Conotoxin LvIA of 37 aas and 1 TMS.  This toxin blocks alpha-3-beta-2/CHRNA3-CHRNB2 nAChR with high selectivity (IC50=8.7 nM (on rat) and 17.5 (on human)) (Luo et al. 2014). An alpha 4/7-Conotoxin LvIF from Conus lividus selectively blocks alpha3beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (Guo et al. 2021). The cryoEM structures are available (5XGL).

 

Eukaryota
Metazoa
Alpho-conotoxin of Conus lividus (Livid cone)
8.B.32.1.5









Alpha-conotoxin of 63 aas and 1 TMS.

Eukaryota
Metazoa
α-conotoxin of Conus praecellens (Admirable cone)
8.B.32.1.6









Alpha-conotoxin Pu1.2 of 41 aas and 1 TMS.

Eukaryota
Metazoa
α-Conotoxin of Conus pulicarius
8.B.32.1.7









Alpha conotoxin GIC of 40 aas and 1 TMS. This toxin reversibly blocks neuronal nAChRs (alpha-3/beta-2 = alpha-6 or -3/beta-2 or -3 > alpha-3/beta-4 = alpha-4/beta-2) (McIntosh et al. 2002).

Eukaryota
Metazoa
α-Conotoxin GIC of Conus geographus (Geography cone) (Nubecula geographus)
8.B.32.1.8









Alpha-conotoxin-like Leo-A1 of 43 aas and 1 TMS.

Eukaryota
Metazoa
Leo-A1 of Conus leopardus (Leopard cone)
8.B.32.1.9









Rho-conotoxin of 58 aas.

Eukaryota
Metazoa
Rho-conotoxin of Conus tulipa (Fish-hunting cone snail) (Tulip cone)
8.B.32.1.10









Alpha-conotoxin PIVA of 68 aas and 1 N-terminal TMS. This α-conotoxin acts on postsynaptic membranes, binding to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) and inhibiting them. This toxin has higher affinity for the adult subtype (alpha-1/beta-1/gamma/delta subunits) of the receptor than for the fetal subtype (alpha-1/beta-1/epsilon/delta subunits) (Teichert et al. 2006).

Eukaryota
Metazoa
PIVA of Conus purpurascens (Purple cone)
8.B.32.1.11









Alpha-conotoxin Lt14.1 of 64 aas and 1 TMS. It is an acetylcholine receptor inhibiting toxin and may impair ion channel function. The protein may be amidated and hydroxylated and possess a disulfide bond (Peng et al. 2006).

Eukaryota
Metazoa
α-conotoxin of Conus litteratus (Lettered cone)
8.B.32.1.12









ConotoxinEb14.7 of 74 aas and 1 TMS (Liu et al. 2012).

Eukaryota
Metazoa
ConotoxinEb14.7 of Conus eburneus
8.B.32.2.1









Kappa-conotoxin Ac4.2 of 41 aas and 1 TMS.  Kappa-conotoxins bind and inhibit voltage-gated potassium channels (Rashid et al. 2013).

Eukaryota
Metazoa
κ-Conotoxin of Conus achatinus
8.B.32.2.2









Conotoxin Bu26 of 51 aa

Eukaryota
Metazoa
Conotoxin of Conus bullatus
8.B.32.2.3









Kappa-conotoxin-like Ac4.3a of 52 aa

Eukaryota
Metazoa
Kappa-conotoxin-like Ac4.3a of Conus achatinus
8.B.32.2.4









PeIVB α-conotoxin of 18 aas. This toxin selectively binds to the fetal (alpha-1/beta-1/gamma/delta subunits) mammalian muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) and blocks the elicited currents completely and dissociates very slowly from the fetal muscle receptor (Teichert et al. 2006).

Eukaryota
Metazoa
PeIVB of Conus pergrandis (Grand cone)
8.B.32.2.5









PIVE conotoxin of 24 aas. This toxin elicits dose-dependent excitatory activity upon injection into fish. Its action is slowly reversible. It does not have effects on the fish potassium channels, TSha1, TSha2 (Kv1 homologs), and Traw (Kv3 homolog) (Teichert et al. 2007).

Eukaryota
Metazoa
PIVE conotoxin of Conus purpurascens (Purple cone)