TCDB is operated by the Saier Lab Bioinformatics Group
TCIDNameDomainKingdom/PhylumProtein(s)
2.A.53.1.1









High-affinity sulfate permease
Eukaryota
Fungi
Sulfate permease of Saccharomyces cerevisiae
2.A.53.1.2









Sulfate permease II
Eukaryota
Fungi
Sulfate permease of Neurospora crassa
2.A.53.1.3









The molybdate (high affinity)/Sulfate (lower affinity) transporter, ShsT1 (Fitzpatrick et al., 2008).
Eukaryota
Viridiplantae
ShsT1 of Stylosanthes hamata (P53391)
2.A.53.1.4









Low-affinity sulfate:H+ symporter, Sut3
Eukaryota
Viridiplantae
Low-affinity sulfate transporter3, Sut3 of Stylosanthes hamata
2.A.53.1.5









Early Nodulin 70, Nod70
Eukaryota
Viridiplantae
Nod70 of Glycine max
2.A.53.1.6









The sulfate transporter, Sultr1.2 with C-terminal STAS domain that is required both for activity and biogenesis/stability (Shibagaki and Grossman, 2006). It physically interacts with 0-acetylserine (thiol)lyase (cysteine synthetase) via its STAS domain. This interaction stimulates the activity of 0-acetylserine (thiol)lyase while inhibiting the SULTR1;2 transport activity. SULTR1.1 (TC# 2.A.53.1.7) interacts with 0-acetylserine (thiol)lyase but this interaction does not stimulate its activity (Shibagaki and Grossman, 2010).

Eukaryota
Viridiplantae
Sultr1.2 of Arabidopsis thaliana (Q9MAX3)
2.A.53.1.7









High affinity sulfate transporter, Sultr1.1 regulated differently from Sultr1.2 (2.A.53.1.6) (Rouached et al., 2008)
Eukaryota
Viridiplantae
Sultr1.1 of Arabidopsis thaliana (Q9SAY1)
2.A.53.1.8









The proton:sulfate symporter, SulP

Eukaryota
Viridiplantae
SulP of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (A8J6J0)
2.A.53.1.9









Slc26a11 Cl-/oxalate or sulfate (but not bicarbonate) exchanger (Stewart et al., 2011).

Eukaryota
Metazoa
Slc26a11 of Cavia porcellus (G3C7W6)
2.A.53.1.10









solute carrier family 26, member 11
Eukaryota
Metazoa
SLC26A11 of Homo sapiens
2.A.53.1.11









Putative sulfate transporter YPR003C
Eukaryota
Fungi
YPR003C of Saccharomyces cerevisiae
2.A.53.1.12









Symbiotic sulfate transporter-1, SST1 of 645 aas.  Expressed only in the symbiosome membrane of rhizobial nodules; transports sulfate from the plant cell cytoplasm to the intracellular rhizobia, where the nutrient is essential for protein and cofactor synthesis, including nitrogenase biosynthesis (Krusell et al. 2005).

Eukaryota
Viridiplantae
SST1 of Lotus japonicus (Lotus corniculatus var. japonicus)
2.A.53.1.13









High affinity sulfate transporter, SUL-2/SUL2/SEL2, of 893 aas and 10 - 12 TMSs. May be a "transceptor", combining transport and receptor functions (Diallinas 2017).

Eukaryota
Fungi
SUL-2 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae
2.A.53.1.14









Sulfate transporter 4:1, chloroplastic, SULTR4;1, MSH12.1, of 685 aas and 13 - 15 TMSs. It is a H+/sulfate cotransporter that may play a role in the regulation of sulfate assimilation. The structure of AtSULTR4;1, in complex with SO42- at an overall resolution of 2.8 Å has been determined (Wang et al. 2021). AtSULTR4;1 forms a homodimer and has a structural fold typical of the SLC26 family of anion transporters. The bound SO42- is coordinated by side-chain hydroxyls and backbone amides, and further stabilized electrostatically by the conserved Arg393 and two helix dipoles. Proton and SO42- are co-transported, and a proton gradient significantly enhances SO42- transport. Glu347, which is ~7 Å from the bound SO42-, is required for H+-driven transport. The cytosolic STAS domain interacts with the transmembrane domains, and deletion of the STAS domain, or mutations at the interface, compromise dimer formation and reduces SO42- transport, suggesting a regulatory function of the STAS domain (Wang et al. 2021).

 

Eukaryota
Viridiplantae
SULTR4;1 of Arabidopsis thaliana (Mouse-ear cress)
2.A.53.2.1









Sulfate/anion transporter (diastrophic dysplasia protein) (SLC26A2). It catalyzes electroneutral SO4-, OH- and Cl- exchange regulated by extracellular Cl- (Ohana et al., 2011). Congenital chloride diarrhea in a patient with a SLC26A2 mutationhas been analyzed with a clinical phenotype has been characterized in a patient with an SLC26A2 mutation (Sun et al. 2021).

Eukaryota
Metazoa
SLC26A2 of Homo sapiens
2.A.53.2.2









Canicular sulfate:HCO3- antiporter (Slc26a1)
Eukaryota
Metazoa
Sulfate transporter 1 of Rattus norvegicus
2.A.53.2.3









Intestinal down-regulated in adenoma (DRA) protein; HCO3-/Cl- antiporter, SLC26a3 (responsible for congenital chloride-losing diarrhea in humans) (Schweinfest et al., 2006). DRA has 12 putative TMSs and a C-terminal STAS domain required for function and activation of CFTR by DRA (Dorwart et al., 2008). Catalyzes 2Cl-/1HCO3- antiport, Cl-/OH- exchange and sulfate transport (Shcheynikov et al., 2006; Moseley et al., 1999). Loss in mice impairs mucosal HCO3- secretion (Xiao et al., 2012).

Eukaryota
Metazoa
DRA of Mus musculus
2.A.53.2.4









Pendrin (Pendred) syndrome (hereditary deafness) anion transporter (Na+-independent). Anions transported: iodide (thyroid gland; apical membrane of follicular epithelium); bicarbonate (kidney; apical membrane of intercalated cells of the cortical collecting duct), chloride, formate, etc. Pendrin probably catalyzes uniport and anion/anion antiport (SLC26A4). It also regulates Na+ absorption by the epithelial Na+ channel (Wall and Pech, 2008). CFTR controls the rate of liquid secretion while pendrin mediates transcellular HCO3- secretion in airway serous cells (Garnett et al., 2011).   A structural model has been presented (Bassot et al. 2016).

Eukaryota
Metazoa
Pendrin of Mus musculus
2.A.53.2.5









Prestin, the outer hair cell voltage-sensitive motor protein (voltage sensitivity depends on intracellular Cl- and HCO3- which may bind to prestin). Prestin transports anions including formate and oxalate; transport and voltage-sensing capabilities are independent functions of the same protein (Bai et al., 2009). Prestin-mediated electromotility is a dual-step process: transport of anions by an alternate access cycle, followed by an anion-dependent transition generating electromotility (Schaechinger et al., 2011; McGuire et al., 2011).  A three-dimensional molecular dynamics model of prestin predicted that it contains eight transmembrane spanning segments and two helical re-entry loops. Tyrosyl residues recognize anions, with residues Y367, Y486, Y501 and Y508 contributing to anion binding through anion-pi interactions. Such interactions, sensitive to voltage and mechanical stimulation, confer a capability to perform electromechanical and mechanoelectric conversions (Lovas et al. 2015).

Eukaryota
Metazoa
Prestin of Mus musculus
2.A.53.2.6









Basolateral kidney cortical collecting duct and parietal cell chloride/sulfate/oxalate permease or channel, SLC26A7 [substrate preference: NO3- >> Cl- = Br- = I- > SO42- = Glucarate-] (minimal OH- and HCO3- transport; regulated by cytoplasmic pH) (Hwan et al., 2005).  May function as a channel (Ohana et al., 2008).

Eukaryota
Metazoa
SLC26A7 of Homo sapiens
2.A.53.2.7









The human Slc26a6 anion exchanger (transports sulfate, formate, oxalate, chloride and bicarbonate in antiport with any one of these anions) (Jiang et al., 2002). However, Cl- and HSO4- are transported slowly; Cl-/HCO3-, Cl-/OH- and Cl-:oxalate exchange reactions are electroneutral (Chernova et al., 2005). (The oxalate nephrolithiasis gene; Clark et al., 2008). Catalyzes 1Cl-/2HCO3- antiport (Shcheynikov et al., 2006; Walker et al., 2010).

Eukaryota
Metazoa
SLC26A6 of Homo sapiens
2.A.53.2.8









The mouse Slc26a6 anion exchanger (same substrate specificity as its human orthologue (2.A.53.2.7)), but Cl- and HSO4- are transported rapidly. Moreover, although Cl-/HCO3- and Cl-/OH- exchange reactions are electroneutral, Cl-:oxalate exchange is electrogenic (Chernova et al., 2005). Also catalyzes Cl-:formate exchange (Knauf et al., 2001).

Eukaryota
Metazoa
Slc26a6 of Mus musculus (AAH28856)
2.A.53.2.9









The electrogenic divalent anion: chloride exchanger (1:1 stoichiometry) (transports sulfate, chloride, and oxalate) (Schaechinger and Oliver, 2007)
Eukaryota
Metazoa
Prestin homologue of Gallus gallus (A0FKN5)
2.A.53.2.10









The anion exchanger, channel and Na+-transporter, SLC26a9 (Chang et al. 2009). Differential contributions and interactions of SLC26A9 with CFTR to Cl- conductance in polarized and non-polarized epithelial cells have been demonstrated (Ousingsawat et al., 2012). Slc26a9 (-/-) mice have reduced gastric acid secretion (Chen et al., 2012). Polymorphisms in the human orthologue lead to altered activity and levels (Chen et al., 2012).

Eukaryota
Metazoa
SLC26a9 of Mus musculus (Q8BU91)
2.A.53.2.11









Guinea pig Slc26a3 electroneutral Cl-/HCO3- exchanger (does not transport oxalate or sulfate). (Stewart et al., 2011).

Eukaryota
Metazoa
Slc26a3 of Cavia porcellus (G3C7W5)
2.A.53.2.12









Slc26a6 Cl-/oxalate, sulfate or bicarbonate exchanger (Stewart et al., 2011).

Eukaryota
Metazoa
Slc26a6 of Cavia porcellus (G3C7W4)
2.A.53.2.13









solute carrier family 26, member 10
Eukaryota
Metazoa
SLC26A10 of Homo sapiens
2.A.53.2.14









solute carrier family 26, member 8
Eukaryota
Metazoa
SLC26A8 of Homo sapiens
2.A.53.2.15









Solute carrier family 26 member 9 (Anion transporter/exchanger protein 9).  May play a role in chronic inflammatory airway diseases (Sala-Rabanal et al. 2015Sala-Rabanal et al. 2015).

Eukaryota
Metazoa
SLC26A9 of Homo sapiens
2.A.53.2.16









Sulfate anion transporter 1 (SAT-1 or SAT1) (Solute carrier family 26 member 1); anion exchanger.  Transports chloride, sulfate, bicarbonate and oxalate (Regeer et al. 2003; Lee et al. 2003).  The mouse and rat orthologues have the same specificities and functions. Loss in mice  is associated with hyperoxalurea and calcium oxalate kidney stones, and specific mutations when heterozygous in humans cause urolithiasis (Dawson et al. 2013).  When homozygous, they can cause severe nephrocalcinosis.

Eukaryota
Metazoa
SLC26A1 of Homo sapiens
2.A.53.2.17









Pendrin (Sodium-independent chloride/iodide/bicarbonate transporter) (Solute carrier family 26 member 4, Slc26a4; PDS).  Involved in ion homeostasis of the endolymph of the inner ear.  Missense mutations cause sensorineuronal hearing loss, but salicylate (aspirin) restored transport function by allowing transport from cytosolic sites to the plasma membrane (Ishihara et al. 2010). May also transport cyanate and thiocyanate (Pedemonte et al. 2007). May play a role in chronic inflammatory airway diseases (Sala-Rabanal et al. 2015). SLC26A4 functional expression may reduce or prevent fluctuation of hearing (Nishio et al. 2016). Iodide transport across thyrocytes constitutes a critical step for thyroid hormone biosynthesis, mediated mainly by the basolateral NIS (TC# 2.A.21.5.1) and the apical anion exchanger pendrin (PDS) (Eleftheriadou et al. 2020).

Eukaryota
Metazoa
SLC26A4 of Homo sapiens
2.A.53.2.18









Chloride anion exchanger (Down-regulated in adenoma) (Protein DRA) (Solute carrier family 26 member 3).  The intracellular pH regulates ion exchange (Hayashi et al. 2009). Reduced functional expression of NHE3, and DRA contribute to Cl- and Na+ stool loss in microvillus inclusion disease (MVID) diarrhea (Kravtsov et al. 2016). Mutations cause Congenital Chloride Diarrhea (CCD), an autosomal recessive disease in humans.  Upon infection with Salmonella, DRA levels go down, preventing Cl- absorption giving rise to diarrhea (A. Quach, personal communication). NHE-3 (TC# 2.A.53.2.18) was markedly downregulated, while the Na+-HCO3--cotransporter (NBC-1; TC# 2.A.31.2.12) and Na+-glucose transporter type-2 (SGLT2 or SGLT-2; TC#2.A.1.7.26) were upregulated after kidney transplantation (Velic et al. 2004).

Eukaryota
Metazoa
SLC26A3 of Homo sapiens
2.A.53.2.19









Prestin (Solute carrier family 26 member 5).  The motor protein responsible for the somatic electromotility of cochlear outer hair cells; essential for normal hearing sensitivity and frequency selectivity of mammals. Prestin transports a wide variety of monovalent and divalent anions. Many SulP transporters in humans are involved in genetic diseases.They have C-terminal hydrophilic STAS domains that are essential for plasma membrane targeting and protein function. The crystal structure of this STAS domain has been solved at 1.57 A resolution (Pasqualetto et al. 2010).  It senses voltage and binds anions for induction of conformational changes (He et al. 2013).  Prestin's 7+7 inverted repeat architecture suggests a central cavity as the substrate-binding site located midway within the anion permeation pathway. Anion binding to this site controls the electromotile activity of prestin (Gorbunov et al. 2014).  Maturation of voltage-induced shifts in the SLC26a5 (Prestin) operating point during trafficking and membrane insertion has been studied (Zhai et al. 2020). Calmodulin binds to the STAS domain of SLC26A5 prestin with a calcium-dependent, one-lobe, binding mode (Costanzi et al. 2021).

Eukaryota
Metazoa
Prestin (SLC26A5) of Homo sapiens
2.A.53.2.20









Sulfate permease family protein 3, Sulp-3

Eukaryota
Metazoa
Sulp-3 of Caenorhabditis elegans
2.A.53.3.1









Sulfate permease
Bacteria
Proteobacteria
Sulfate permease of Yersinia enterocolitica
2.A.53.3.2









Bicarbonate:Na+ symporter, BicA (Price et al., 2004).  The protein probably has 14 TMSs in a 7 + 7 arrangement (Price and Howitt 2014).

Bacteria
Cyanobacteria
BicA of Synechococcus WH8102 (Q7U617)
2.A.53.3.3









12 TMS Na+:bicarbonate symporter, BicA (Price et al., 2004; Shelden et al., 2010) (low affinity but high efficiency).

Bacteria
Cyanobacteria
BicA of Synechococcus sp. PCC7002 (Q14SY0)
2.A.53.3.4









SulP homologue with fused C-terminal STAS/Rhodanese domains [Rhodanese is a sulfate:cyanide sulfotransferase.]

Bacteria
Chloroflexi
SulP homologue from Chloroflexus auranticus (B9LBX9)
2.A.53.3.5









SulP homologue with fused C-terminal STAS/CAP-ED domains (function unknown COG0659) (Felce and Saier, 2005)

Bacteria
Proteobacteria
SulP homologue of Methyloversatilis universalis (F5R8F2)
2.A.53.3.6









Nitrate transporter with fused C-terminal STAS/CAP-ED domain, LtnT.  The cNMP-binding domain appears to inhibits transport under normal conditions (Maeda et al., 2006).

Bacteria
Cyanobacteria
LtnT of Synechococcus elongatus (Q5N2Y3)
2.A.53.3.7









SulP homologue with fused C-terminal STAS-CAP-ED domain (function unknown) (Felce and Saier, 2005)

Eukaryota
Fungi
SulP homologue of Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Q09764)
2.A.53.3.8









SulP homologue with fused C-terminal carbonic anhydrase domain, probable bicarbonate uptake transporter (Felce and Saier, 2005)

Bacteria
Spirochaetes
SulP homologue of Leptospira interrogans (Q8F8H7)
2.A.53.3.9









SulP homologue. The low resolution structure is available (Compton et al., 2011). 

Bacteria
Proteobacteria
SulP homologue of Yersinia enterocolitica (A1JRS3)
2.A.53.3.10









Vacuolar membrane protein, YGR125W, basic amino acid (arginine, etc.) transporter of 1036 aas and 10 - 13 TMSs (Kawano-Kawada et al. 2021). The membrane domain is found in the central part of the protein, residues 210 - 630 with large hydrophilic N- and C-terminal domains. The large C-terminal domain may be a PE-PGRS family domain, some of which may be outer membrane porins (see TC# 9.B.96), and there may be an additional TMS at the C-terminus. Vacuolar levels of basic amino acids drastically decrease in Δygr125w cells. An expression plasmid of YGR125w with HA3-tag inserted in its N-terminal hydrophilic region restored the vacuolar levels of basic amino acids. Uptake of arginine into vacuolar membrane vesicles depended on HA3-YGR125w expression. A conserved aspartate residue in the first TMS (D223) was indispensable for the accumulation of basic amino acids. YGR125w is also designated VSB1. Thus, Ygr125w/Vsb1 contributes to (1) the uptake of arginine into vacuoles and (2) vacuolar compartmentalization of basic amino acids (Kawano-Kawada et al. 2021).

Eukaryota
Fungi
YGR125W of Saccharomyces cerevisiae
2.A.53.3.11









Bicarbonate transporter, DauA (YchM). Also transports dicarboxylic acids including fumarate, aspartate and succinate, and is therefore designated the dicarboxylic acid uptake system A (DauA) (Karinou et al. 2013) It is the only succinate uptake porter at acidic pHs. The STAS domain forms a complex with the acyl carrier protein, ACP and malonyl-ACP, and the complex has been determined by x-ray crystallography (PDB# 3NY7).  This complex links bicarbonate and dicarboxylate transport in some way with fatty acid biosynthesis (Moraes and Reithmeier 2012).

Bacteria
Proteobacteria
DauA or YchM of E. coli
2.A.53.3.12









A bicarbonate transporter fused to a carbonic anhydrase, Rv3273 (Moraes and Reithmeier 2012).

Bacteria
Actinobacteria
Rv3273 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis
2.A.53.3.13









Fumarate (Na+-independent anion) transporter, SLC26dg of 499 aas and 14 TMSs.  It has an N-terminal Sulfate-tra-GLY domain with a glycine motif of unknown function and a C-terminal STAS (sulfate transporter and antisigma factor antagonist) domain.  The membrane-inserted domain consists of two intertwined inverted repeats of seven transmembrane segments, each resembling the fold of the (unrelated?) transporter, UraA. The structure shows an inward-facing, ligand-free conformation with a potential substrate-binding site at the interface between two helix termini in the center of the membrane (Geertsma et al. 2015). This structure defines the common framework for the diverse functional behavior of the SLC26 family.

Bacteria
Deinococcus-Thermus
SLC26dg of Deinococcus genothermalis
2.A.53.3.14









Bicarbonate:Na+ symporter of 564 aas and 11 putative TMSs. Crystal structures of the transmembrane domain (BicA(TM)) and the cytoplasmic STAS domain (BicA(STAS)) of BicA were solved (Wang et al. 2019). BicA(TM) was captured in an inward-facing HCO3--bound conformation with a '7+7' fold monomer. HCO3- bound to a cytoplasm-facing hydrophilic pocket within the membrane. BicA(STAS) is a compact homodimer, required for the dimerization of BicA. The dimeric structure of BicA was further analysed using cryo-electron microscopy and physiological analysis of the full-length BicA, and may represent the physiological unit of SLC26-family transporters. Comparing the BicA(TM) structure with the outward-facing transmembrane domain structures of other bicarbonate transporters suggested an elevator transport mechanism that is applicable to the SLC26/4 family of sodium-dependent bicarbonate transporters (Wang et al. 2019).

Bacteria
Cyanobacteria
BicA of Synechocystis sp. PCC6803
2.A.53.4.1









Sulfate transporter
Bacteria
Cyanobacteria
Sulfate transporter of Synechocystis sp.
2.A.53.4.2









Sulfate transporter, Rv1739c (Zolotarev et al. 2008).  Its STAS domain binds guanine nucleotides as shown by x-ray chrystalography (PDB# 2KLN; Sharma et al. 2011; Sharma et al. 2012).  Sulfate uptake by Rv1739c requires CysA and its associated sulfate permease activity, and suggest that Rv1739c may be a CysTWA-dependent sulfate transport protein (Sharma et al. 2012).  Sulfate uptake by Rv1739c requires CysA and its associated sulfate permease activity, and suggest that Rv1739c may be a CysTWA-dependent sulfate transport protein (Zolotarev et al. 2008).

Bacteria
Actinobacteria
Rv1739c of Mycobacterium tuberculosis
2.A.53.5.1









High affity mitochondrial molybdate uptake transporter, Mot1 of 456 aas and 11 TMSs (Baxter et al. 2008; Tomatsu et al., 2007).  The transcript level of nitrate reductase, NR1, was highly induced under Mo deficiency in a mot1-1 mutant (Ide et al. 2011).

Eukaryota
Viridiplantae
Mot1 of Arabidopsis thaliana (Q9SL95)
2.A.53.5.2









High affinity (~6 nM Km) molybdate transporter 1, Mot1 of 519 aas and 12 TMSs (Tejada-Jiménez et al. 2007). 

Eukaryota
Viridiplantae
MOT1 of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii
2.A.53.5.3









Molybdate transporter 2, MOT2, of 464 aas and 10 TMSs. It is required for vacuolar molybdate export during senescence. An N-terminal di-leucine motif is critical for correct subcellular localisation of MOT2, and its activity is required for accumulation of molybdate in Arabidopsis seeds. It is involved in inter-organ translocation (Gasber et al. 2011). 

Eukaryota
Viridiplantae
MOT2 of Arabidopsis thaliana